A Critique Towards Australian Work and Holiday Visa Subclass 462: Where Does It Leave Indonesian Citizen?

Yetty Komalasari Dewi, Wenny Setiawati


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17304/ijil.vol17.3.792

Full Text:

PDF


Abstract


Work and Holiday Visa (WHV) is one of the product outcomes from the agreement that Australia engaged with state partners. Initially, this visa aims for cultural exchange and then shifted to supply the needs of Australian industry. In essence, this visa granted the holder one year to spend time in Australia consisting of six months for working and six months for travelling. However, in its application, there are mistreatments on the WHV holder, and there is no sufficient labour protection towards the worker. This paper examines the position of WHV holder in Australia, protection for the worker, and the view of the Indonesian Government on the WHV. It also discusses the Indonesia – Australia Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (IA-CEPA) on the WHV context since there is a provision regarding WHV in the agreement. The paper concludes that the WHV is not a mere cultural exchange program, but a type of labour migration. The fact that Government of Indonesia still considered WHV as a cultural program is not enough for the safety of Indonesian citizens which partakes the program, it should be governed by the labour law and provided by sufficient protection. The Government of Indonesia failed to see this as part of their scope of protection in IA-CEPA, and the Australian Government also did not set a clear context on WHV. Therefore, the GOI should shift its view on the WHV and take necessary measures to provide better labour protections under this scheme.


Keywords


Australia; IA-CEPA; Labor; Law; WHV

References


Legal Documents

Indonesia-Australia Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement.

Memorandum of Understanding Indonesia – Australia Relating Work and Holiday Visa, 2009. Available at: http://www.aiya.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/MoU-Work-Holiday-English.pdf (accessed 25 August 2020).

Law No. 13 of 2003 on Manpower, State Gazette No. 39, Supplement of State Gazette No. 4279.

Law No. 39 of 2004 regarding Placement and Protection of Indonesian Overseas Worker, State Gazette No. 133.

Law No. 18 of 2017 regarding Protection for Indonesian Migrant Worker, State Gazette No. 242.

President Regulation No. 20 of 2018, State Gazette No. 39.

United Nations, Depositary Convention against Transnational Organized Crime. Available at https://treaties.un.org/pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=XVIII-12&chapter=18&clang=_en (accessed 27 August 2020).

Books and book chapters

Castree N, M. Coe N, Ward K and Samers M. Spaces of Work: Global Capitalism and the Geographies of Labour. London: Sage Publications, 2004.

Harding G, and Webster E, The working Holiday Maker Scheme and The Australian Labour Market. Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, University of Melbourne, 2002.

Journals and periodicals

Andrijasevic, Rutvica and Nicola Mai. “Trafficking (in) representations: Understanding the recurring appeal of victimhood and slavery in neoliberal times.” Anti-Trafficking Review 7 (2016): 1—10.

Campbell, Iann. “Harvest Labour Markets in Australia: Alleged Labour Shortages and Employer Demand for Temporary Migrant Workers.” Journal of Australian Political Economy, No. 84. (2019): 46-88.

Ekman, A.O. and Samuel, E. “Expanding the Movement of Natural Persons Through Free Trade Agreements? A Review of CETA, TPP and ChAFTA.” International Journal of Comparative Labour Law and Industrial Relations 35, (2019): 163-200.

Howe J, Stewart A and Owens R. “Temporary Migrant Labour and Unpaid Work in Australia,” Sidney Law Review 40, (2018): 183.

Reilly, A. “Low-cost labour, or cultural exchange? Reforming the Working Holiday visa programme.” The Economic and Labour Relations Review 26, No. 3. (2015): 474-489.

Stewart, Andrew, Jim Stanford and Tess Hardy, eds. The Wages Crisis in Australia; What it is and what to do about it. Adelaide: University of Adelaide Press, 2018.

Tan, Y. and Lester L. “Labour Market and Economic Impacts of International Working Holiday Temporary Migrants to Australia.” Population Space Place No.18 (2012): 359-383.

Toledo, H. “The IA-CEPA and Sector Adjustments: A Specific—Factors Model of Production.” International Review of Economics and Finance 48, (2017).

Tsaur, S. and Huang C. “Working Holiday Tourist Learning: Scale Development and Validation.” Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing 33, No.4. (2016): 535-550.

Other Sources

Australasian Meat Industry Employees Union. “The Impact of Australia’s Temporary Work Visa Programs on the Australian Labour Market and on the Temporary Work Visa Holders.” Submission to the Senate Education and Employment Committees, 2015.

Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs, “Why has the Australian Government Negotiated a Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement with Indonesia?”. Available at: https://dfat.gov.au/trade/agreements/not-yet-in-force/iacepa/Pages/why-has-the-australian-government-negotiated-a-comprehensive-economic-partnership-agreement-with-indonesia.aspx (accessed on 29 August 2020).

Australian Government, Your work rights explained. Available at: https://www.studyinaustralia.gov.au/English/Live-in-Australia/Work/your-work-rights-explained (accessed 20 August 2020).

CFMEU. “Tough Jobs: The Rise of An Australian Working Underclass.” CFMEU Research Paper, 2016.

Collective Shout, “Inquiry Into Human Trafficking.” Australia Parliament, 4 March 2017. Available at: https://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/lcdocs/submissions/57323/0027%20Collective%20Shout.pdf (accessed 25 August 2020).

Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, “Policy Handbook Pacific Labour Scheme.” November 2019. Available at: https://pacificlabourmobility.com.au/wordpress-content-dir/uploads/2019/11/PLS-Policy-Handbook.pdf (accessed 20 August 2020).

Department of Home Affairs (A). “Working Holiday Maker visa program report,” 31 December 2018. Available at https://www.homeaffairs.gov.au/research-and-stats/files/working-holiday-report-dec-18.pdf (accessed 23 August 2020).

Department of Home Affairs (B). “Working Holiday Maker visa program report” 30 June 2019 Available at: https://www.homeaffairs.gov.au/research-and-stats/files/working-holiday-report-jun-19.pdf (accessed 23 August 2020).

Department of Home Affairs, “Working Holiday Maker (WHM) program,” available at https://immi.homeaffairs.gov.au/what-we-do/whm-program (accessed 23 August 2020).

Department of Immigration and Border Protection. “A History of the Department of Immigration: Managing Migration to Australia.” Commonwealth of Australia, 2017. Available at: https://www.homeaffairs.gov.au/news-subsite/files/immigration-history.pdf (accessed 20 August 2020).

Ferguson, A. and Toft, K. “7-Eleven: The Price of Convenience.” Four Corners, 31 August 2015. Available at: http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/stories/2015/08/30/4301164.htm (accessed 23 August 2020).

Goldin, I. and Reinert, K. “Globalization for Development: Trade, Finance, Aid, Migration and Policy.” Washington, DC: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, 2006.

Howe, J. and Nikoloudakis, I. “A Critique of the Australian Working Holiday Programme; Options for Reform, Report for the Consulate-General of the Republic of Korea.” The University of Adelaide, December 2017.

Howe, J., Clibborn S, et al. “Towards A Durable Future: Tackling Labour Challenges in the Australian Horticulture Industry.” The University of Adelaide, January 2019. Available at: https://www.sydney.edu.au/content/dam/corporate/documents/business-school/research/work-and-organisational-studies/towards-a-durable-future-report.pdf, (accessed 23 August 2020).

ILO. “Fair Migration: Setting an ILO agenda.” International Labour Conference, 103rd Session, International Labour Office, Geneva, 2014.

Kantor Wilayah DKI Jakarta Kementerian Hukum dan HAM Republik Indonesia [Ministry of Law and Human Rights of the Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta Regional Office], Rekomendasi Visa Bekerja dan Berlibur (Work and Holiday Visa). Available at: https://jakarta.kemenkumham.go.id/layanan-publik/layanan-keimigrasian/layanan-untuk-wni/rekomendasi-visa-bekerja-dan-berlibur-work-and-holiday-visa (accessed 23 August 2020).

Kantor Wilayah Yogyakarta Kementerian Hukum dan HAM Republik Indonesia [Ministry of Law and Human Rights of the Republic of Indonesia, Yogyakarta Regional Office], Rekomendasi Visa Bekerja dan Berlibur (Work and Holiday Visa). Available at http://jogja.imigrasi.go.id/47629-2/#toggle-id-1 (accessed 27 August 2020).

Meldrum-Hanna, C. and Russell, A. “Slaving Away.” Four Corners, 4 May 2015. Available at http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/stories/2015/05/04/4227055.htm (accessed on 23 August 2020).

OECD, International Migration Outlook 2018, 42nd Edition, OECD Publishing, Paris, 2018.

Seasonal Worker Programme Implementation Arrangements, See https://docs.employment.gov.au/system/files/doc/other/implemntation_arrangement_5_november_2018.pdf, accessed 20 August 2020.

The Law Library of Congress. “Guest Worker Program.” Global Legal Research Center, February 2013. Available at: https://www.loc.gov/law/help/guestworker/2013-008925%20FINAL091013.pdf (accessed 25 August 2020).

The Senate Education and Employment References Committee. “A National Disgrace: The Exploitation of Temporary Work Visa Holders.” March 2016. ISBN: 978-76010-397-2.

Thomson, L. “Migrant Employment Patterns in Australia: post Second World War to the Present.” AMES Research and Policy Unit, October 2014. Available at: https://www.ames.net.au/-/media/files/research/history-of-migrant-employment-final.pdf?la=en (accessed 25 August 2020).

UNSW Human Rights Clinic, “Temporary Migrant Workers in Australia.” Issues Paper, 15 October 2015.




Creative Commons License
Indonesian Journal of International Law is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.