Extra-Territorial Torture and Inhuman Treatment towards Suspected Terrorists Committed By the U.K. and the U.S. Military Actions

Mahfud Mahfud


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17304/ijil.vol11.2.277

Full Text:

PDF


Abstract


Since the attack to the World Trade Centre in 11 September 2001, the world has raised their awareness to any of serious allegation of terrorist activities. Many steps have been taken by the United Nations and the states to make such legislatives in their national and international level in order to prevent and combat terrorism. The world really condemns what the terrorist have done and put their maximal effort to punish them as well as to protect the innocence from experiencing such dangerous cause of such activity. The hatred of terrorists brings many actions brought by the nations, especially the United States, as a revenge of the painful feeling of those who were left by the victims. It often leads to the act of torture and inhuman treatment done by the official to the terrorist detainees. This paper will focus on the prohibition of torture and inhuman treatment both in the United States and the United Kingdom and the United States extra-territorial actions in Guantanamo Bay and Abu Ghraib prisons and also the United Kingdom’s extra-territorial conducts in treating prisoners in Iraq in relation to Al-Skeini case. Both actions of the states might be considered as a violation of national and international human rights rules because of the existence of torture in treating the terrorist detainees during their military operations. Therefore, it is important to examine whether human rights law applies extra-territorially to such violations. This study would apply the Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT) 1984, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) 1966 and the Inter-American Commission of Human Rights (IACHR) with respect to the United States actions and the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) 1950, the CAT and the ICCPR for the United Kingdom’s actions.

Sejak terjadi serangan terhadap Pusat Perdagangan Dunia (WTC) pada 11 September 2001 dunia telah meningkatkan kesadaran mereka terhadap setiap tuduhan serius dari kegiatan teroris. Berbagai upaya telah dilakukan oleh Perserikatan Bangsa-bangsa (PBB) dan Amerika Serikat untuk membuat badan legislatif di tingkat nasional maupun internasional dalam rangka pencegahan dan penanggulangan terorisme. Dunia benar-benar mengutuk apa yang telah dilakukan teroris dan mengerahkan upaya maksimal untuk menghukum mereka serta untuk melindungi yang tidak bersalah dari kegiatan yang berbahaya tersebut. Kebencian terhadap teroris banyak memunculkan tindakan dari negara-negara, terutama Amerika Serikat untuk membalas dendam perasaan menyakitkan mereka yang ditinggalkan oleh para korban. Hal tersebut sering menyebabkan tindakan yang mengarah pada penyiksaan dan perlakuan tidak manusiawi yang dilakukan petugas terhadap para tahanan teroris. Tulisan ini akan berfokus pada larangan penyiksaan dan perlakuan tidak manusiawi di Amerika Serikat dan Britania Raya, serta tindakan ekstrateritorial Amerika Serikat di Teluk Guantanamo dan penjara Abu Ghraib dan juga perilaku ekstrateritorial Britania Raya dalam memperlakukan para tahanan di Irak dalam kaitannya dengan kasus Al-Skeini. Kedua tindakan negara tersebut dapat dianggap sebagai pelanggaran terhadap aturan nasional dan internasional hak asasi manusia karena adanya perlakuan penyiksaan terhadap para teroris selama operasi militer mereka. Oleh karena itu, merupakan hal yang penting untuk memeriksa apakah hukum hak asasi manusia berlaku ekstratertorial untuk pelanggaran tersebut. Penelitian ini akan menerapkan Konvensi Tentang Pencegahan Penyiksaan dan Perlakukan kejam Tidak Manusiawi lainnya, atau Perlakuan Merendahkan Martabat atau Hukuman (CAT) pada tahun 1984, Perjanjian Internasional tentang Hak Sipil dan Politik (ICCPR) tahun 1966, Komisi Inter-Amerika tentang Hak Asasi Manusia (IACHR) sehubungan dengan tindakan-tindakan Amerika Serikat dan konvensi Eropa mengenai hak asasi manusia (ECHR) pada tahun 1950, CAT, dan ICCPR atas tindakan Britania Raya.


References


i. Books

Feyter, K.D. Human Rights: Social Justice in the Age of the Market. Fernwood Publishing. 2005.

Marks, S., and A. Clapham. International Human Rights Lexicon. Oxford University Press. 2005.

Saul, B. Defining Terrorism in International Law. Oxford University Press. 1992.

Steiner, H.J., and others (eds). Internationl Human Rights in Context: Law, Politics, Morals Text and Material. Oxford University Press. 2008.

White, R., and C. Ovey. The European Convention on Human Rights. Oxford University Press. 2006.

ii. Journal Articles

Altiparmak, K. “Human Rights Act: Extra-Territorial Application”. Journal of Criminal Law. Vol. 72 No. 1. 2008.

Byron, C. “A Blurring of the Boundaries: The Application of International Humanitarian Law by Human Rights Bodies”. Virginia Journal of International Law. Vol. 47. 2007.

Febriani, N., Cahyani, D., & Gelgel, N. (2016). Pembingkaian Berita Seratus Hari Kerja Jokowi-JK (Analisis Framing Program Berita di Metro Hari Ini). E-Jurnal Medium, 1(2). Retrieved from https://ojs.unud.ac.id/index.php/komunikasi/article/view/20416

Lewis. J. “The European Ceiling on Human Rights”. Public Law. 2007.

Londras. F.D. “Guantanamo Bay: Towards Legality”. Modern Law Review. Vol. 36. 2008

Menon, J.A. “Guantanamo Torture Litigation”. Journal of International Criminal Justice. Vol. 6 No. 2. 2008.

Milanovic., M. “From Compromise to Principle: Clarifying the Concept of State Jurisdiction in Human Rights Treaties”. Human Rights Law Review. Vol. 8 No. 3. 2008.

Nowak, M., and E. McArthur, “Publication Review: The United Nations Convention Against Torture: A Commentary’ Reviewed by A. Orakhelashvii”. European Journal of International Law. Vol. 20 No. 2. 2008.

Roth, B.R., “Just Short of Torture: Abusive Treatment and the Limits of International Criminal Justice”, Journal of International Criminal Justice, Vol. 6 No. 2. 2008.

Said, S. “Guantanamo Bay – Five Years On”, Journal of Immigration, Asylum, and Nationality Law. Vol. 21 No. 2. 2007.

Steyn, J. “Guantanamo Bay: the Legal Black Hole”. International and Comparative Law Quarterly. Vol. 53 No. 1. 2004.

Thienel, T. “The ECHR in Iraq: the judgment of the House of Lords in R (Al-Skeini) v Secretary of State for Defence”. Journal of International Criminal Justice. Vol. 6 No. 1. 2002.

William, S., and S. Shah. “Bankovic and others v Belgium and 16 other contracting states’. European Human Rights Law Review. Vol. 6. 2002.

iii. Treaties and Regulations

Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. 1465 UNTS 85 (opened for signature 10 December 1984, entered into force 26 June 1987).

Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, 4.XI.1950 (entered into force 21 September 1970).

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. 999 UNTS 171 (opened for signature 16 December 1966, entered into force 23 March 1976).

Human Rights Act 1998 (UK).

Crimes and Criminal Procedure Act 18 USC § 3181.

Universal Declaration Of Human Rights GA Res 217A, A/810 At 71 (1948).

iv. Cases

Aksoy v. Turkey (App.21987/93), Judgement of 18 December 1996; (1997) 23 EHRR 553

Bankovic and Others v. Belgium and Others (2001) 11 BHRC 435

Cf. Cadet v. Bulger, 3777 F3.3d 1173, 1194 (11th Cir.2004)

Cyprus v. Turkey (2002) 35 EHRR 30, 731

Drozd v. France (1991) 240 Eur.Ct, H.R (ser.A)

Ireland v.United Kingdom, Judgement of 18 January 1978, Series A, No.25; (1979-80) 2 EHRR 25

Issa v. Turkey [2005] 41 EHRR 27

Loizidou v. Turkey (1997) 263 EHRR 513

R (Al-Skeini) v. Secretary of State for Defence [2007] 3 WLR 33

Selmouni v.France (App.25803/94), Judgement of 28 July 1999; (2000) 29 EHRR 403

The Greek case, Report of 5 November 1969, (1969) 12 Yearbook 186-510

v. Others

berita, w. (2017). Polri menangkap teroris yang berindikasi kelompok radikal isis. [online] Warta Berita terkini dan terbaru hari ini. Available at: http://www.harianregional.com/2015/12/polri-menangkap-teroris-yang.html [Accessed 30 Jul. 2016].

“Ex Guantanamo Detainee: Wrong Place, Wrong Time”, CNNAccess, 13 June 2006 (Interview of Shafiq Rasul by Wolf Blitzer), available at http://www.cnn.com/2006/US/06/13/rasul/index.html? Section1/4cnn_world (accessed 15 August 2009)

Human Rights Committee-The United Nations Human Rights-Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights,’ Consideration of reports submitted by states parties under Article 40 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (concluding observation of the Human Rights Committee towards the United States of America, submitted on 18 December 2006) lt;http://daccessdds.un.orgdocUNDOCGENG0645961PDFG0645961.pdfOpenElement; accessed 1 September 2009

Human Rights Committee-The United Nations Human Rights-Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights,’ Consideration of reports submitted by states parties under Article 40 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (comments by the Government of the United States of America on the concluding observations of the Human Rights Committee, submitted on 12 February 2008)lt;http:// daccessdds.un.orgdocUNDOCGENG0840460PDFG0840460.pdfOpenElement; accessed 1 September 2009

Human Rights Committee-The United Nations Human Rights-Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, ‘Summary record of the 2380th meeting (the second and third periodic reports of the United States of America, submitted on 27 July 2006)lt;http:// daccessdds.un.orgdocUNDOCGENG0643177PDFG0643177.pdfOpenElement; accessed on 1 September 2009

Human Rights Committee-The United Nations Human Rights-Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, ‘Summary record of the 2542nd meeting (the sixth periodic report of the United Kingdom, submitted on 28 July 2008)lt;http:// accessdds.un.orgdocUNDOCGENG0842917PDFG0842917.pdfOpenElement.pdf; accessed 4 September 2009

Human Rights Committee - The United Nations Human Rights-Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, ‘replies to the list of issues (CCPR/C/GBR/Q/6) to be taken up in connection with the consideration of the sixth periodic report of the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Reply to the list of issues by State Party, submitted 13 June 2008)

<http://daccessdds.un.orgdocUNDOCGENG0842594PDFG0842594.pdfOpenElement.pdf; accessed 4 September 2009

J.S. Bybee, Assistant Attorney General, ‘Memorandum for Alberto R. Gonzales, Counsel to the President, Re: Standards of Conducts for Interrogation under 18 U.S.C. §§ 2340-2340A’, 1 August 2002

Precautionary measures granted by the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights during 2002; Annual Report of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights 2002

Report of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) On the Treatment By the Coalition Forces of Prisoners of War and Other Protected Persons By the Geneva Conventions in Iraq during Arrest, Internment, and Interrogation. February 2004

Buletin, L., 2017. Berita Terkini. [Online] Available at: http://www.buletinlokal.com

The Committee Against Torture - The United Nations Human Rights-Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, ‘Consideration of reports submitted by States Parties under Article 19 of the CAT (Second periodic report of the United States of America, submitted on 6 May 2006) lt;http://daccessdds.un.orgdocUNDOCGENG0641846PDFG0641846.pdfOpenElement; accessed 30 August 2009

The Committee Against Torture - The United Nations Human Rights-Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights,’ Consideration of reports submitted by states parties under Article 19 of the CAT (conclusions and recommendations of the Committee against Torture towards the second report of the United States of America, submitted on 19 May 2006) lt;http://daccessdds.un.orgdocUNDOCGENG0643225PDFG0643225.pdfOpenElement; accessed 31 August 2009

The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), ’Dimming the beacon of freedom: U.S. violations of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights’ (2006 A Shadow Report by the American Civil Liberties Union Prepared for the United Nations Human Rights Committee on the occasion of its review of the United States of America’s Second and Third Periodic Report to the Committee)<http://www2.ochr.org/english/bodies/hrc/docs/Final%20ICCPRˍShadowˍReportˍJune20.doc; accessed 14 August 2009

The Torture Abolition and Survivor Support Coalition International, ‘Torture by the United States of America: the survivors’ view point’ (submitted to the United Nations Human Rights Committee in response to the 28 November 2005 Report of the United States of America, 15June 2006)<http://www2.ochr.org/english/bodies/hrc/docs/ngos/finalˍICCPRˍtasscreport.doc; accessed 17 August 2009

The United Nation resolution 1373 (2001) adopted by the Security Council




Creative Commons License
Indonesian Journal of International Law is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.