Money Laundering: How it Becomes an International Threat (Response Against Money Laundering from the Side of Indonesia)

Eka Kurniasari


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Money Laundering is one of the transnational organized crime which has been increasing intensively. Money laundering is the term used to describe a process of concealing the source of money that gained through crime (it is usually called “dirty money”). This process is done with the aim to make the “dirty money” converted into “clean money”. There are many ways for this process to be done, among them is by buying properties and houses. Other is by saving the “dirty money” in a bank account that will later turned it into “clean money”. This is where the bank service could get involved in this particular crime. In an attempt to overcome this problem, countries joining in the G-7 Summit established the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) in Paris in July 1989 that provides standards recommendation, national and international, as measures to make integrated cooperation among countries. This essay discusses the very definition of money laundering, the role FATF takes in order to prevent money laundering, and the responses of Indonesia regarding money laundering.

Pencucian uang merupakan salah satu kejahatan transnasional terorganisasi yang telah meningkat secara intensif. Pencucian uang adalah istilah yang digunakan untuk menggambarkan proses menyembunyikan sumber uang yang diperoleh melalui kejahatan (biasanya disebut “uang kotor”). Proses ini dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk membuat “uang kotor” diubah menjadi “uang bersih”. Terdapat banyak cara agar proses ini dapat dilakukan, salah satunya dengan membeli properti dan rumah. Cara lain dengan menyimpan “uang kotor” ke dalam rekening bank yang kemudian akan diubah menjadi “uang bersih”. Dalam hal ini layanan perbankan dapat terlibat dalam tindakan kejahatan tertentu. Dalam upaya untuk mengatasi masalah ini, negara-negara bergabung dalam KTT G-7 mendirikan Financial Action Task Force (FATF) di Paris pada Juli tahun 1989 yang memberikan rekomendasi standar, nasional, dan internasional, sebagai langkah-lamgkah untuk membuat kerjasama yang terintegrasi antar negara-negara. Tulisan ini membahas definisi asli dari pencucian uang, peran FATF dalam mencegah tindakan pencucian uang, dan tanggapan Indonesia mengenai tindakan pencucian uang.


i. Books:

E.P. Ellinger, E. Lomnicka, and R.J.A. Hooley, “Ellinger’s Modern Banking Law”, Oxford, Fourth Edition, 2009.

Mark Hapgood QC, “Paget’s Law of Banking”, Eleventh Edition, Butterworths, 1996.

ii. Internet:

ADB/OECD Anti-Corruption Initiative for Asia and the Pacific, “Mutual Legal Assistance, Extradition and Recovery of Proceeds of Corruption in Asia and the Pacific”.

Agus Brotosusilo, “Indonesia’s Cross-Border Statutes to Curb Money Laundering Criminal Activities”, 2005.

Allens Arthur Robinson: Services: Anti-Money Laundering: Asia Pacific: Indonesia.

Anwar Nasution, Banking Policies and Regulations to Combat Corruption: The Case of Indonesia, 2001.

ASEAN Law Association, “Cross Border Statutes and Other Measures to Curb Money Laundering”, 25th Anniversary Special Commemorative Session 24-27 November 2005, Makati Shangri-la Hotel, Manila, Philippines.

Athi Shankar, Minister’s Ex-Aide Charged with Money Laundering,

Bangladesh Bank, “Managing Core Risks in Banking, Guidance Notes on Prevention of Money Laundering”.

International Compliance Association, “Professional Qualifications and Training in Anti-Money Laundering and Counter Financing of Terrorism, Malaysia”, Jointly awarded by the International Compliance Association and Institute of Bankers Malaysia, in association with University of Manchester Business School.

FATF-GAFI, “About the FATF”.

FATF-GAFI, “An Introduction to the FATF and Its Work”

FATF-GAFI, “FATF Standards-FATF 40 Recommendations”

FATF-GAFI, “FATF lX Special Recommendations”

FATF-GAFI, FATF Report, “Global Money Laundering and Terrorist Financing Threat Assessment” FATF-GAFI, “FATF Strengthens Global Anti-Money Laundering and Anti-Terrorist Financing Campaign”, Paris, 27 February 2004.

Friedrich Schneider, “Money Laundering and Financial Means of Organized Crime: Some Preliminary Empirical Findings”, Economic of Security Working Paper 26, Eusecon, February 2010.

Yanuar Utomo, “Anti-Money Laundering Measures to Freeze, Confiscate and Recover Proceeds of Corruption in the Indonesian Perspective”.

iii. Legistlations:

Law on Money Laundering (Law No. 15 of 2002, as amended by Law No. 25 of 2003)

Regulation Number 57 Year 2003

Bank Indonesia Regulation Number: 3/10/PBI/2001

Bank Indonesia Regulation Number: 11/28/PBI/2009

Guidelines on Cash Financial Transaction Reports and Their Reporting Procedures for Financial Dealers

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