Evolution Of Terrorism Act Against Civil Aircraft

Adhy Riadhy Arafah


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17304/ijil.vol11.2.274

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Abstract


Since an aircraft was invented, an aircraft is not only used for transporting person from one place to another, but also can be used in war until revenge terrorism ideology and faith against a state. Furthermore, an aircraft is a representative of state where the aircraft is registered, which is also defined by terrorist as a target to attack a state. Attacking a civil aircraft is categorized as an international crime. Hereinafter, since Tokyo Convention 1960 declared, the evolution of crimes against civil aircraft has been evolved. The main target of offences is still an aircraft, however, the offence is diverted by attacking others target such as all facilitations relating to the security in civil aviation including airport and air navigation. 9/11 accident in USA is a picture how terrorism offence is still evolving. Now, aircraft and ground navigation facilitations are not the only main object in attacking by terrorist. The aircraft now is used to attack others ground target which are represented a state. The evolving of terrorism acts, in the end, is the reason why Beijing Convention 2010 on the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Relating to International Civil Aviation was made.

Sejak pesawat ditemukan, pesawat tidak hanya digunakan untuk mengangkut orang dari suatu tempat ke tempat lain, tetapi juga dapat digunakan dalam perang hingga ideologi balas dendam terorisme dan keyakinan untuk melawan negara. Selain itu, pesawat terbang adalah perwakilan dari negara dimana pesawat tersebut terdaftar, yang juga didefinisikan oleh teroris sebagai target untuk menyerang negara. Menyerang pesawat sipil dikategorikan sebagai kejahatan internasional. Selanjutnya, sejak konvensi Tokyo 1960 menyatakan, evolusi kejahatan terhadap pesawat sipil telah berkembang. Target utama dari penyerangan masih pesawat terbang, akan tetapi, penyerangan dialihkan dengan menargetkan orang lain seperti semua fasilitas yang berkaitan dengan keamanan dalam penerbangan sipil termasuk bandar udara dan navigasi udara. Kasus 9/11 di Amerika Serikat merupakan gambaran bagaimana penyerangan terorisme masih terus berkembang. Saat ini, pesawat terbang dan fasilitasi navigasi darat bukan satu-satunya objek utama dalam penyerangan teroris. Pesawat terbang saat ini digunakan untuk menyerang sasaran wilayah pihak lain yang diwakili negara. Perkembangan dari aksi terorisme, yang pada akhirnya, adalah alasan mengapa Konvensi Beijing 2010 tentang Pemberantasan Tindakan Melawan Hukum Berkaitan dengan Penerbangan Sipil Internasional dibuat.


References


i. Books

Malcom N. Shaw, International Law, 6th edition, 2008.

M. Cherif Bassiouni, The United States Model, International Criminal Law, Volume II: Procedure, Transnational Publisher, Inc., 1986.

Kathleen M. Sweet, Aviation and Airport Security; Terrorism and Safety Concerns, Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004.

Ruwantissa Abeyratne, Aviation Security Law, Springer, 2010.

ii. Legislation

United Nations, Convention on Offences and Certain Other Acts Committed on Board Aircraft, 1963.

United Nations, Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft, 1970.

United Nations, Convention for the suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Civil Aviation, 1971.

United Nations, The Convention for the Prevention and Punishment of Terrorism, 1937.

United Nations, The Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts of Violence at Airports Serving International Civil Aviation, 1988.

United Nations, Convention on the Marking of Explosives for the Purpose of Detection, 1991.

International Civil Aviation Organization, Convention on the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Relating to International Civil Aviation, 2010.

Bonn Declaration on Air – Hijacking 1978

SC Res. 1373 (2001), 28 September 2001, UN Doc. S/RES/1373 (2001)

iii. Cases

R. v. Martin [1956] 2 Q.B. 272.

U.S. District Court E.D. New York, 1950.89 F. Supp. 298.




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