The Lesson of Implementing Non-Discrimination Principle on Indonesia-US Clove Cigarettes case

Eva Johan


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17304/ijil.vol11.1.269

Full Text:

PDF


Abstract


The Indonesian government recently won for keeping its rights on Clove Cigarette Case in WTO. It became a winning diplomacy on Indonesia trade. Indonesia has an objection on United States cigarette policy, which prohibit product of clove cigarette (mostly imported by Indonesia) in United States, because such policy violate one of the most important principle on WTO, Non-Discrimination Principle, which are Most Favoured Nations (MFN) and National Treatment. Indonesia won this case in both, Panel and Appellate Body. This winning is not only important for Indonesia but for all country,
mainly for Developing and Less Developing Country member of WTO. This paper will examine the significance and contents of Non Discrimination Principle from the perspective of Indonesia-United States Tobacco Case.

Pemerintah Indonesia baru-baru ini memenangkan perkara dalam kasus Clove Cigarrette Case yang dibawa ke hadapan Badan Penyelesaian Sengketa World Trade Organisation (WTO Dispute Settlement Body). Hal ini menunjukkan posisi diplomasi Indonesia yang kuat di dalam bidang
perdagangan. Indonesia mempertanyakan kebijakan Pemerintah Amerika Serikat terkait impor cengkeh di mana Indonesia menjadi pengimpor utamanya. Kebijakan yang dibuat oleh Pemerintah Amerika Serikat diduga melanggar salah satu prinsip non-diskriminasi WTO, yaitu Most Favourite Nation (MFN) dan National Treatment. Indonesia menang dalam tahap pemeriksaan di Panel Body dan Appellate Body. Kemenangan ini bukan saja penting bagi Indnesia melainkan juga bagi semua negara, khususnya negara berkembang dan negara kurang berkembang yang menjadi anggota WTO. Tulisan ini akan membahas signifikansi dan isi dari prinsip non-diskriminasi dari perspectif kasus tembakau antara Indonesia dan Amerika Serikat.


References


Books

Adolf, H. Hukum Perdagangan Internasional. PT. Rajagrafindo Persada. 2005.

Adolf, H. Penyelesaian Sengketa Dagang dalam World Trade Organization (WTO). CV. Mandar Maju. 2005

Black, H.C. Black’s Law Dictionary. St. Paul Minn: West Publishing. 1983.

Bourgeois, JHJ., et al. Protectionism and the European Community. Kluwer Law and Taxation Publishers. 1987.

Jackson, John H. “Equality and Discrimination in International Economic Law (XI): The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade”, Yearbook of World Affairs 37. 1983.

Jackson, John H. The World Trading System: Law and Policy of International Economic Relations, 6th printing, MIT. 1994.

Jackson, John H., and William Davey. Legal Problems of International Economic Relation, 3rd ed. St. Paul: West Publishers. 1995.

Juwana, H. Bunga Rampai Hukum Ekonomi dan Hukum Internasional. Lentera Hati. 2002.

K, Syahmin A. Hukum Dagang Internasional (dalam Kerangka Studi Analitis). PT. Rajagrafindo Persada. 2006.

Long, O. Law and Its Limitations in the GATT Multilateral Trade System. Graham & Tortman/Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. 1987.

Maciel, G.A. “Brazil’s Proposals for the Reform of the GATT System”, The World Economy, vol 1, No. 2. London. 1978.

Van den Bossche, P. The Law and Policy of the World Trade Organization: Text, Cases and Material. Cambridge University Press. 2006.

Voon, T. “The WTO Appellate Body Outlaws Discrimination in U.S. Flavoured Cigarette Ban”. American Society of International Law Insight. Volume 16, Issue 15. 2012.

Internet Materials

Kemenangan di WTO Posisikan Indonesia [Confirmed Indonesian Position after the Win in the WTO]”, available at: http://ditjenkpi.kemendag.go.id/website_kpi/in-dex.php?module=news_detail&news_content_id=1018&detail=true, accessed

on 25 November 2012, 22:31 WIB.

International Materials

Panel Report, United States - Clove Cigarettes Measures Affecting the Production and Sale of Clove Cigarettes WT/DS406/R, 2 September 2011.

Report of the Appellate Body, United States - Clove Cigarettes Measures Affecting the Production and Sale of Clove Cigarettes WT/DS406/AB/R, 4 April 2012.




Creative Commons License
Indonesian Journal of International Law is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.