Perlindungan Warga Negara dalam Perbandingan

Djoko Hardono


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With the advancement of globalization, the rate of migration of people from one nations to another nations is getting higher. This might result in causing the problems for those migratingpeople in the destination countries. Most of these problems related to the violation of the destination’s state immigration rules, for example, illegal entry, forged passport, and so forth. Providing protection to its citizens who are coping with problems abroad is one of the state’s obligations. Fulfilling this specific obligation is not a simple task for states. Therefore, all states would put high priority to this duty. In dealing with this matter, most states refer to the existing international convention, such as the 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, as well as the 1963 Vienna Convention on Consular Relations. However, some states need more than these international conventions to solve the problem. Some states would have a bilateral arrangement to provide protection to their own citizens. These arrangements could touch upon very specific matters to ease the potential problems. This article would describe the protection programs in Indonesia, Japan and the Philippines. In providing protection for their citizens, each country stipulates their basic policy uniquely, based on their political, economic and socio-cultural interests.

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